However, that can take a long time, too long for most industrial tasks. The procedure developed by Eckhard Freund and his colleagues operates faster. Thus the computer is constantly sensing where there is danger of collision. Nothing else happens at first. But in reality there is no collision.
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As soon as the robots approach the critical area, the computer retrieves from its memory the precise program that will avert this dangerous combination of circumstances. The effect is astonishing. In the new institute building— the moving cartons still have not all been unpacked— Eckhard Freund has reassembled his trial arrangement from the Hanover Fair: two robots of different makes move about in the same working area and elegantly avoid one another—and also an obstacle that I put in their way.
Centuries ago those who constructed clockwork dolls were brought before the Inquisition for precisely that reason. The Dortmund robot researcher is not haunted by such thoughts; all too often the inadequacies of his apparatus remind him that machines lack the ability that comes from human intelligence.
On the colorful simulation screens at any rate cars are already able to avoid one another skillfully. Real traffic, of course, is considerably more complex than a factory; and how we will react in a dangerous situation when a computer takes over the steering wheel is totally unknown.
Robot research is extremely physical and concrete. It makes a quick movement and the entire chassis shudders. Adjusting these side effects in the individual axes so that the robot operates smoothly is a challenge to robot programming. Freund has the machine repeat its movement, this time, however, under the control of a new guidance process, and everything looks much better.
One cause of this shuddering is the drives, where all sorts of mutually reinforcing rhythms can arise. Consequently it considerably reduces disturbances in the steel men if as many of their elements as possible are driven directly by the motors. It is not only the handymen among us who are far superior to robots in hand-eye coordination. Human intelligence is able to process data acquired from our various sensors many times better than a machine, and it is precisely this capability that is important for assembly operations in manufacturing.
Furthermore, these data must also guide the sensors in turn. Probably the most difficult task for robotics is robot vision.
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How does the robot process the data delivered to it from a video camera? If an optically-capable robot is supposed to select a certain object from a group of other objects, we must present them to it all neatly lined up; a bargain table on the last day of the winter sale would drive the machine to despair—if it were capable of despair. However, robot vision is making progress. The plan is for them to work in space.
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For that reason they must be tolerant to error, be able to take over the work of another robot if it breaks down, and not go crazy just because a test tube tips over. Robots under extreme conditions are of interest not only to space and underwater researchers but also to the military. Freund points out that scientific capabilities are guided by political and economic decisions—he is right about that.
Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability
In a cost-intensive area of research like his, finances shape the freedom of research. The institute must provide even more qualified scientific training for future engineers in the field of metrology and automation engineering by coordinating resources, teaching subjects, and personnel.
However, the major task of the new institute is research. Its activities, even before it was officially established, are remarkable: within the framework of several major research projects, research is currently underway on extremely topical subjects in high technology sectors such as sensor and laser technology, robotics, and man- machine interaction.
So far more than DM5 million have been allocated. The scientific achievements stemming from this research have been internationally recognized. The integration of intelligent sensor technology, electronic communications, and computer assistance within the automobile could relieve the driver, thereby increasing road safety, transport efficiency, and last but not least, reduce environmental pollution.
Some aspects of this general area of research can and must be examined by the newly established institute at the Comprehensive Technical University in Kassel. The institute performs similar research activities in other sectors of metrology and automation engineering. This should prove a spectacular operation; until now, no one has ever gone on location to get a close look at these famous deposits, which may perhaps assure our mineral self-sufficiency during the next century.
It will be both scientific— improving our knowledge of the geological environment of such a deposit—and technical, making it possible to calibrate certain measurements made previously to develop the processes needed to gather the nodules—a manna which could acquire vital significance in the next century should surface mining resources become exhausted, as is feared. The Nautile dives will undeniably have an adventurous side.
Actually, until now only unmanned Ifremer robots—such as the Epaulard or the multibeam hydro- locator Seabeam—have surveyed these bumpy seabeds. Technologically, finally, the Nixonaut campaign aims to better assess the validity of the gathering concept now contemplated.
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It would involve a battery of tracked vehicles criss-crossing the field granted to France; they would be powered electrically from the surface through flexible cables. These gathering vehicles would also be connected to a sort of giant vacuum-cleaner with a 5-km long hose through which the nodules would be sucked up to a surface processing unit. Such vehicles will actually roam the Pacific seabed only, at best, by the end of this century. But, with the Nautile, Ifremer is starting to pave the road to the abyss through some material checks: for instance, when the submarine lands on the seabed, the researchers will simulate the pressure exerted by the caterpillar tracks that will propel the nodule-gathering robots so as to determine the weight for which they would start sinking into the sediments.
Finally, it will also try to get them off the ocean floor with powerful water jets; if this worked, it would also considerably simplify the gathering process, and without too much damage to the ocean floor. It will include those company units that are based on underwater technology and mechatro- nics, i. Drass S. They believed at Repola that, among others, nodule pickers moving along the continental shelf could be quickly sold to the Soviets.
Orders were believed to be coming in any time. The price of a nodule picker is around a couple of billions. Last year Rauma-Repola succeeded in selling to the Soviets two very deep-diving submarines. According to Laxell, by concentration of its new metal industries, Repola aims at preserving the professional know-how in Finland. The development units will aid in the search for new products and new markets. Laxell reports that the economic yield of the topmost projects within the metal industry has been satisfactory until now.
The director of the Oceanics-unit, engineer Simo Mak- konen, 41, has been appointed as the director of the Rauma-Repola Development Projects. Using this software package, which has been named Piramid Precompetively Inspired Research on Advanced Methods for IC Design , the design time of chips can be shortened from months or years to hours or days. The development of the automatic design system is a result of a research project within the framework of ESPRIT, the European research stimulation program.
Philips and IMEC claim that they are the first to design a system that can directly translate a system specification what the chip has to be able to do into a chip design. Previously designed components for the chips are used in the process. Piramid enables the designer to test design alternatives in record time, while the option of automatically testing the chips is built in. In order to demonstrate the possibilities of the system, Philips is using Piramid to design a chip containing all the electronics of a compact disk player. What is at stake is to assure that, in 10 years from now, Europe will be at the highest technological level to compete with the Americans and the Japanese.
It was not easy to arrive at an agreement: Siemens Germany was reluctant; it did not want to give an equal share to the French and the Italians.
1stclass-ltd.com/wp-content/cheating/4449-blaue-haken-abschalten.php But now the agreement is signed. In a first stage , the manufacturers will focus their efforts on 0. In the second stage , research will deal with megabit circuits, 4 times as powerful and with still finer line widths: 0. This is obviously the most extensive European program so far. It remains to be seen to what extent they will be heard. Considering the strategic stakes of the project, it is obvious that manufacturers will receive some aid: if the European electronics industry is to survive, whether in the sector of consumer electronics TV sets, hi-fi, etc.
Also, European manufacturers seldom achieve the highest technological level. The Japanese are going ahead full steam the three world leaders are now Japanese companies , and last year, in a complete reversal of their usual policy of cut-throat competition, U. They created a joint research organization, Sematech, with the blessing of antitrust authorities in Washington and, of course, the Pentagon.
In the second stage , research will deal with megabit circuits, 4 times as powerful and with line widths still finer: 0. Now, the project is coming to an end, and the plan appears to have been a smashing success. But will Philips and Siemens ever get back their billidns in investments?
Holtwijk clearly compensates for his lack of modesty with a sense of bravado. We worked together with Siemens in a tremendous fashion. Palmer, a market analyst for Dataquest in London, uses less grand words. Now that lag is probably less than 1 year. It is a tremendous achievement for Philips and Siemens.
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